[1], Concerns around political interference led to reforms after the interregnum of 1268–1271 and Pope Gregory X's decree during the Second Council of Lyons in 1274 that the cardinal electors should be locked in seclusion cum clave (Latin for 'with a key') and not permitted to leave until a new pope had been elected. Aeterni Patris Filius prohibited this practice and established two-thirds as the standard needed for election. Your contributions will help us continue 1922: The longest conclave of the 20th century took five days (14 votes), following a similar stand-off. While Charlemagne (Emperor from 800 to 814) and Louis the Pious (Emperor from 813 to 840) did not interfere with the Church, Lothair I (Emperor from 817 to 855) claimed that an election could only take place in the presence of imperial ambassadors. [14] As in other dioceses, the clergy of the Diocese of Rome was the electoral body for the Bishop of Rome. 1963: Giovanni Montini is elected in three days (six votes) and becomes Paul VI with the Roman Catholic Church steeped in a climate of reforms with the Second Vatican Council, which revolutionised rituals to modernize the Church. The oldest popes were Pope Celestine III (elected in 1191) and Celestine V (elected in 1294) who were both nearly 85. 1978: Polish outsider Karol Wojtyla is elected after three days (eight votes), apparently with an overwhelming majority. A simple majority vote sufficed until 1179, when the Third Council of the Lateran increased the required majority to two-thirds. A procedure was adopted[by whom?] While the Italians have had a stranglehold on the papacy over centuries, there have been many exceptions aside from John Paul II (Polish in 1978) and Benedict XVI (German in 2005). Any such sick cardinals complete the ballot papers and then take the oath and drop the ballot papers into the box. Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church [surname], Benedict XVI was 78 when he was elected in 2005. AFP. Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, favored, although no relation, Cardinal Giovanni Angelo de' Medici, younger brother of Gian Giacomo Medici, an Imperial general in Germany and Siena. [101] Beginning with the 1978 August conclave canopied thrones were no longer used due to the lack of space resulting from the large increase in the number of cardinal electors (two rows of seats needed). After the overthrow of the French-backed Gonzaga, Pisani was suggested as a "transitional pope", but to no avail. Holy Congregation of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, Miranda, Salvador. , TheJournal.ie supports the work of the Press Council of Ireland and the Office of the Press Ombudsman, and our staff operate within the Code of Practice. The biggest change since 1621 was the elimination of the rule that required the electors to sign their ballots resulting in the detailed voting procedure of scrutiny making use of anonymous oaths. [d] Paul VI reinstated Pius XII's procedure thirteen years later,[25] but John Paul II overturned it again. All popes since John Paul I have refused an elaborate coronation, choosing instead to have a simpler papal inauguration ceremony. He becomes John Paul II – the first non-Italian pope since Utrecht-born Adrian VI in the 16th century. [109] Beginning with Pope John Paul II, the last three popes elected including Pope Francis, have chosen to address the crowds first before imparting the Urbi et Orbi blessing. "Revolution in Papal Elections". In 2013 the Portuguese section of Vatican Radio reported that at the conclusion of the 2013 conclave, the newly elected Pope Francis bestowed his cardinalitial zucchetto on Archbishop Lorenzo Baldisseri, the secretary of that conclave,[102] and on 22 February 2014 at Pope Francis' first consistory, Baldisseri was formally made a cardinal with the title of Cardinal-Deacon of Sant'Anselmo all'Aventino.[103]. In most cases, even if such considerations are absent, popes tend to choose papal names different from their baptismal names; the last pope to reign under his baptismal name was Pope Marcellus II (1555). [87], Prior to 1621, the only oath taken was that of obedience to the rules of the conclave in force at that time, when the cardinals entered the conclave and the doors were locked, and each morning and afternoon as they entered the Sistine Chapel to vote. When the infirmarii return to the chapel, the ballots are counted to ensure that their number matches with the number of ill cardinals; thereafter, they are deposited in the appropriate receptacle. After the speech concludes, the ecclesiastic leaves. [47] When Pope Benedict II (684-685) complained about them, Emperor Constantine IV (in office 654-685) acquiesced, ending the requirement for emperors to confirm elections. After that, however, the church decided to wait at least 10 days before the first vote; later that was stretched to 15 days to give all cardinals time to get to Rome. Journal Media does not control and is not responsible for user created content, posts, comments, submissions or preferences. Philip II of Spain preferred cardinals Carpi, Morone, Puteo, Medici and D'Oler – in short, any candidate other than d'Este or a Frenchman. Cardinal electors may not correspond or converse with anyone outside the conclave, by post, radio, telephone, internet and social media, or otherwise and eavesdropping is an offense punishable by excommunication latae sententiae. The 2013 papal conclave was convened to elect a pope to succeed Pope Benedict XVI following his resignation on 28 February 2013. The French were eventually persuaded to back cardinal Medici, who was also strongly supported by the Duke of Florence and Vice-Chancellor Alessandro Farnese. Pope Gregory X was elected pope, but not before residents of Viterbo, north of Rome, tore the roof off the building where the cardinals were staying and restricted their meals to bread and water to make them hurry up. And I, [given name] Cardinal [surname], so promise, pledge and swear. Users are reminded that they are fully responsible for their own created content and their own posts, comments and submissions and fully and effectively warrant and indemnify Journal Media in relation to such content and their ability to make such content, posts, comments and submissions available. Should they choose a pope who would continue to espouse Pius IX's reactionary religious and political views, and would continue to refuse to accept Italy's Law of Guarantees guaranteeing the pope religious liberty in the Kingdom of Italy? [45] After the demise of the Western Roman Empire, influence passed to the Ostrogothic Kings of Italy and in 533, Pope John II formally recognised the right of the Ostrogothic monarchs to ratify elections. The congregations also fix the date and time of the commencement of the conclave. [16] A major change came in 1059, when Pope Nicholas II decreed in In Nomine Domini that the cardinals were to elect a candidate, who would take office after receiving the assent of the clergy and laity. March 11, 2013 19:17:17 IST. The junior cardinal deacon then draws by lot nine names; the first three become scrutineers, the second three infirmarii and the last three revisers. In 2013, the dean and sub-dean were not in attendance (being over the age limit), and these functions were assumed by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Re. It has happened in the past that the Cardinal Protodeacon has himself been the person elected pope. Noteworthy | (2002). Sign up for a weekly curated briefing of the most important strategic affairs stories from across the world. If, however, no irregularities are observed, the ballots may be opened and the votes counted. At the end of the conclave, the new pope if he so chose, would give his cardinalitial zucchetto or skull cap to the secretary of the conclave, indicating the secretary would be made cardinal at the next consistory to create cardinals. The cardinals asked Medici, however, whether he would consent to a scrutiny on the next day. Instead of casting votes, the bishop was selected by general consensus or by acclamation. Here are a few: LONGEST CONCLAVE: In 1268, a conclave began that lasted nearly three years — 33 months to be exact. A papal conclave is a gathering of the College of Cardinals convened to elect a bishop of Rome, also known as the pope. The 1559 papal conclave (5 September – 25 December) was convened on the death of Pope Paul IV and elected Pope Pius IV as his successor.