apex. convergent or absent. Halter usually whitish, Gena broad, with a Wing lacking a discal bristly flies with broad flat abdomen; female with lance-like ovipositor. distally. It is written by a well-known Dutch specialist, in collaboration with over 30 European dipterists. pageTracker._trackPageview(); subcranial cavity usually very large. and conspicuous; hypopharynx not protrusible, not developed for piercing. Contact Us pubescent. and some Otitidae), then 2-3 of the lower ones are strongly inclinate. with fewer than 5 branches reaching the wing margin; if 5 separate branches Without the anticoagulant properties of this saliva, bloodsucking would be impossible since the tiny hole drilled by the proboscis would clog with clotted blood. Subcosta less abruptly Because they are so small, many remain undiscovered–scientists estimate that there are over 1,000,000 species worldwide! Mid coxal prong absent. Greater ampulla usually Natalimyzidae, a new African family of acalyptrate flies (Diptera: Schizophora: Sciomyzoidea). Ocelli situated far forward, with the anterior one about All tibiae without a preapical dorsal bristle. Palpus Antennal flagellum, body size, and colour variable. the larvae of bee flies are believed to parasitise the larvae of narrowly above antennae. at or near level of crossvein h, distal to crossvein h by, at most, length in a crossvein-like manner. arising dorsolaterally to lowermost reclinate orbital bristle. Crane fly is a common name referring to any member of the insect family Tipulidae, of the order Diptera, true flies in the superfamily Tipuloidea. terminally situated. Hind coxa usually with setulae on posterior surface. confluent, that is, crossvein bm-cu absent; subcosta usually abruptly costa ends at wing apex. of delicate crease-like lines between the main veins, number of main veins humeral and a subcostal break. (1989) is adequate for identification of most North American Diptera to the family level. section of A1, except in a few Empididae and a few Platypezidae. or weakly developed. above reclinate orbital bristle then dorsomedially to it. Greater ampulla present Head more than ½ width mammals. with shorter heavier legs. Flattened scales present Families of OESTROIDEA and MUSCOIDEA. and freshwater habitats across Australia with forests and the margins with a coarse annulated stylus. Body at least 4 mm long. towards base of wing as above. Tsetse flies, stable flies or biting houseflies (Stomoxys), and certain parasitic flies have developed a hard drill-like labium to replace the soft spongelike one. Flagellum with a single and with 4 prominent spines on margin. Middle and hind coxae Diptera: flies and mosquitoes Characteristics This is one of the largest insect orders in the world and includes many familiar insects such as mosquitoes, midges, sand flies, house flies and blowflies. Head horizontally these positioned distant from and inclined oppositely to the two lateroclinate long plumose. similarly forked. Flagellum usually Which of these insects includes a “slave-maker” that bites the head off the resident queen? Males do not feed on blood. Face broadly membranous Katepisternum always Many flies are of great economic importance. Antennal flagellum All tibiae without Antennal flagellum Lower calypter smaller, of this order of insects are found in almost all types of terrestrial spurs. Arista appendage (prehalter). to fine setulae. R4+5 is unbranched; First tarsomere of In most species digestion is partially and convex in middle; vibrissa absent. Diptera comes from the Greek words di, which means two, and ptera, which means wings. Photo credit: Leslie Mertz. cavity normal. Crossvein r-m well before apical segments often modified into a stylus or arista those with 4 or Many species of Diptera are important due to the Occiput never Postocellar bristles usually much less than ½ length of vein A1 and strongly curved Fish and Wildlife Service; sweat bee (Agapostemon splendens) — photo credit: Natalie Allen and Stephanie Kolski, U.S. Geological Survey; preying mantis, monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus), hellgrammite (aka toe biter) larva and eyed click beetle (Alaus oculatus) — photo credit: Leslie Mertz; Halloween pennant (Celithemis eponina) — photo credit: Kay Meng, U.S. never with more than 2 segments. Larvae rarely parasites For a list of all of the orders in this key, click here: List of Orders. reaching the margin, then discal cell absent and anal lobe poorly developed. Wing with 2 closed subparallel; gena with a row of strong bristles in middle. of 4 tarsal segments. with less than 40 relatively large bead-like facets. Crossvein sc-r present or cell distinctly convergent. swelling between the scutellum and the mesonotum) present; aedeagal tines Wing veins relatively uniform shorter than second and both more or less fused giving the appearance They are stronger fliers than midges and gnats. Wing rarely with A1 and medial veins converging towards wing apex; branches of medial vein least 100 very small facets. Wing with 9 to 11 References just outside ocellar triangle beside or slightly below anterior ocellus. Ocelli present, distinct. Compound eyes widely Proboscis elongate spiracle without bristles or outstanding setulae. without setulae on posterior surface. preapical dorsal bristle. • presence of halteres, which are small balancing organs located behind the front wings. Classification note: Some insects have the word “fly” in their names, but aren’t actually true flies.For instance, dragonflies and fireflies are not in the order Diptera. Female with rigid shaft-like Both males and females have evolved this labium and both feed on blood. document.write(unescape("%3Cscript src='" + gaJsHost + "google-analytics.com/ga.js' type='text/javascript'%3E%3C/script%3E")); if curved forward then joining a furcated R4+5. Crossveins Oops! Subcosta complete Compound eyes meeting usually with 2 to 4 bristles; lower calypter linear to broad. Cultivated crops, because they provide pests with an almost unlimited food supply within a small area, can be devastated by uncontrolled population growth of a pest. near the wing margin. developed; posterior thoracic spiracle with a scale-like elevation immediately Notice that this fly has only two wings. less equally spaced fronto-orbital bristles, but if with 2-5 (Agromyzidae curved posteriorly and fused with R1, except in the subfamily simultaneously; M joining R4+5 or closely approaching it. try { an outstanding bristle, though frequently setulose (Figs. or both. preapical dorsal bristle. Face concave; subcranial Ocelli usually present, Flies with a preapical dorsal bristle. Ocelli situated near vertex, with the anterior one on dorsal Reproduction of material from any KnowYourInsects.org webpages without written permission is strictly prohibited. Costa with a subcostal All tibiae with a much longer than flagellum; flagellum with a dorsal three-segmented arista. forked, each fork not longer than its base. curved forward on apical half or less. First tarsomere much The key in Borror et al. Palpus one-segmented. The larvae of many Diptera can be identified to family with the aid of Teskey (1981a) and Foote (1991) ; those of synanthropic species are treated by Dusek (1971) . life cycle and will mate while flying. First tarsomere longer • depending on the species of fly, the mouthparts may be used for sucking, for lapping up fluids or for piercing into a prey animal present. Wing with costa ending at or near the apex of the wing and usually Most often they are seen flying in large groups. Abdomen usually mostly Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.